Acetylcholine/Choline Deficiency in Chronic Illness – The Hunt for the Missing Egg

ucm278430We hear a lot about vitamins and minerals such as B12, folate, magnesium, vitamin C, and so on, but there seems very little talk these days on the importance of dietary lecithin and choline. Are you consuming an adequate amount of acetylcholine, or other phospholipids? The odds are that you are not.

A little bit about choline

The human body produces choline by methylation of phosphatidylethanolamine (from dietary sources such as lecithin and others) to form phosphatidylcholine in the liver by the PEMT enzyme. Phosphatidylcholine may also be consumed in the diet or by supplementation. Choline is oxidized to betaine which acts as an important methyl donor and osmolyte.

For those wanting to see how this relates to the methylation cycle, below is a nice graphic (courtesy of Wikipedia).

Choline metabolism

It is well known that magnesium deficiency is widespread (57% of the population does not meet the U.S. RDA according to the USDA), but the numbers for choline deficiency are even more shocking.

According the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) in 2003-2004, only about 10% of the population have an adequate intake of choline. This means about 90% of the population consumes a diet deficient in choline. Furthermore, those without an adequate intake of choline may not have symptoms.

Along with folate and B12 deficiency, inadequate consumption of choline can lead to high homocysteine and all the risks associated with hyperhomocysteinaemia, such as cardiovascular disease, neuropsychiatric illness (Alzheimer’s disease, schizophrenia) and osteoporosis. Inadequate choline intake can also lead to fatty liver or non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD).

The most common symptoms of choline deficiency are fatty liver and/or hemorrhagic kidney necrosis. Consuming choline rich foods usually relieve these deficiency symptoms. Diagnosing fatty liver isn’t as simple as running  ALT and AST since nearly 80% of people with fatty liver have normal levels of these enzymes according to a population study published in the journal Hepatology. In fact, in an experiment, 10 women were fed a diet low in choline. Nine developed fatty liver and only one had elevated liver enzymes.

For those who are genotyped by 23andMe, there is a SNP (rs7946) related to NAFLD you can look at in the PEMT gene called PEMT G523A (V175M). Caucasians with nonalcoholic fatty liver are more likely to carry the rs7946 (T), with the effect being most pronounced for rs7946(T;T) genotypes. [PMID 16051693]

If you are genotyped by 23andMe, make sure you are logged in to 23andMe and you will see your results for this SNP.


Choline, the nervous system, and the heart

Despite it’s role in the CNS and stimulating parasympathetic activity, there is very little info about choline and mental illness. However, in a large population-based study published in The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, people with higher blood levels of choline had lower levels of anxiety – however, levels of choline did not correlate with depressive symptoms.

Despite the lack of studies, it has been clinically observed that supplementing Lecithin or putting patients on a Lecithin rich diet can lower levels of anxiety, help the nervous system by establishing balance between sympathetic and parasympathetic, and even manage cardiac dysrhthmias. The Milner Acetylcholine Protocol (MAP) uses lecithin to manage cardiac dysrhthmias.

Phospholipids and the cell membrane

The fundamental building blocks of all cell membranes are phospholipids. Lecithin consists of phospholipids such as phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylinositol, Phosphatidic acid, other minor phospholipids and glycolipids. About 50% of the mass of most cell membranes are composed of phospholipids. The plasma membranes of cells also contain glycolipids and cholesterol – which correspond to about 40% of the total lipid molecules. Adequate intake of phospholipids and glycolipids is important for the integrity of the cell membranes. Lecithin contains a balanced amount of phospholipids and glycolipids.

Phospholipid supplementation has also been shown to help with mitochondrial dysfunction in patients with diseases such as Chronic Fatigue Syndrome, chronic Lyme Disease, Fibromyalgia, and Gulf War Illness. Fatigue reduced about 40% in Chronic Fatigue Syndrome patients after lipid replacement therapy (supplementing phospholipids) according to the Journal of Chronic Fatigue Syndrome.

Adequate intake of choline and choline-rich foods

Adequate intake of choline varies by age. Here is a table by

Adequate Intake (AI) levels for choline are:


Adequate Intake (AI)
of Choline

Infants:(0-6 months)
(7-12 months)
125 milligrams
150 milligrams
Children:(1-3 years)
(4-8 years)
(9-13 years)
200 milligrams
250 milligrams
375 milligrams
Adolescents:(14-18 years)400 milligrams (Females)
550 milligrams (Males)
Adults:(19 and older)425 milligrams (Females)
550 milligrams (Males)
Pregnant women450 milligrams
Breastfeeding women550 milligrams also has a very nice graphic showing the best sources of choline. According to their chart, beef liver and egg are by far the best sources for lecithin with modest amounts in lean beef, chicken breast, cod, wheat germ, and cauliflower.
Unfortunately, not all nutrition data is the same, and for the sake of comparison, below is what Wikipedia lists as high choline foods.

Animal and plant foodsCholine (mg)Calories
32 gram sunflower lecithin syrup544250
5 ounces (142 g) raw beef liver473192
15 gram soy lecithin granules450120
A cup of wheat germ202432
Half a pound (227 g) cod fish190238
A pound (454 grams) of broccoli182158
A pound (454 grams) of cauliflower177104
Quart of milk, 1% fat173410
Half a pound of chicken150543
Two cups (0.47 liters) firm tofu142353 
A cup of uncooked amaranth135716
30 gram Brewer’s yeast (2 tbsps)120116
A cup of uncooked quinoa119626
100 grams of Soybeans dry116268
Large hardboiled egg11378
A pound of spinach113154
Two cups of cooked kidney beans108450
A cup (146 g) of peanuts77828
A cup (143 g) of almonds74822
Three cups (710 cc) cooked brown rice54649
A grapefruit19103

Since cooking eggs at high temperatures destroys the choline content, it’s best to cook the egg so the yolk is runny to preserve lecithin content. For people without egg allergies, properly cooked eggs is one of the best sources of lecithin.

In presence of an egg allergy, consuming liver or supplementing with sunflower lecithin may be the best options to ensure an adequate intake of choline. Sunflower lecithin may be a better source for lecithin than soy because unlike soy lecithin, sunflower lecithin is never derived from GMO crops. Also, soy is generally more allergenic than sunflower, so soy lecithin could potentially provoke unwanted effects in sensitive individuals.

Acetylcholine, phospholipids, autoantibodies, and a word of caution

Acetylcholine and antiphospholipid autoantibodies are seen in various autoimmune and chronic illnesses. It is well know that with Myasthenia Gravis, patients most commonly have autoantibodies against nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR). A large number of CFS patients may have acetylcholine receptor antibodies according to a study published in the International Journal of Molecular Medicine.

Dysautonomia and POTS can also be associated with autoantibodies against acetylcholine receptors. Mayo medical laboratories has a very comprehensive Autoimmune Dysautonomia Evaluation lab test that tests for autoantibodies against acetylcholine receptors and much more.

Antiphospholipid Syndrome (or Hughes syndrome) is an autoimmune condition that can lead to hypercoagulation and blood clots. Conditions such as Lupus, Sjogren’s syndrome, Chronic Fatigue Syndrome, and Fibromyalgia are often associated with antiphospholipid antibodies. Antiphospholipid antibodies can even develop in presence of chronic infections such as Hepatitis C, Syphilis, Chlamydia pneumoniae, EBV, HHV-6, Lyme disease, mycoplasma, Q Fever, and many other infections. Antiphospholipid syndrome can be tested for with LabCorp’s Thrombotic Risk Profile.

At this time there is insufficient evidence to determine if supplementing lecithin would be beneficial or harmful for those with acetylcholine receptor autoantibodies or antiphospholipid syndrome. More clinical research is needed to understand how lecithin supplementation influences the various autoimmune processes that may exist in these patients.

Whether you are a health expert with experience utilizing choline rich foods or lecithin supplements to treat chronic illness, or a patient using choline to promote your own health, please share your experience below.

By geneticgenie | October 21st, 2013 | Posted in Uncategorized |

56 Responses to “Acetylcholine/Choline Deficiency in Chronic Illness – The Hunt for the Missing Egg”

  1. Melissa Says:

    This article was particularly interesting to me as I have been diagnosed with Lyme and CFS in the past and also have Myasthenia Gravis, POTS/Dysautomnia as well as heterozygous for the MTHFR gene, which I’ve begun to suspect plays a role in my diseases and perhaps this as well. Thanks for the valuable info!

  2. Susan Says:

    Thanks for the good information. You may also want to add some information about cystic fibrosis and choline. There’s been some interesting papers from British Columbia on this topic. Thanks for the reference to the papers on chronic fatigue. Very helpful.

  3. geneticgenie Says:

    Susan – If I were to include all info there is about choline, I might as well write a book. But interesting note about cystic fibrosis. A little research shows that they can have high homocysteine and tend to have low glutathione too. And choline can improve homocysteine and glutahtione in cystic fibrosis patients. There is a lot of talk about using B12 and Folate to reduce homocysteine, with not as much talk about how prevalent choline deficiency is. Choline lowers homocysteine. And like folate, it turns into an important methyl donor when it is oxidized into betaine.

  4. geneticgenie Says:

    Interesting history Melissa. Were you ever tested for acetylcholine receptor autoantibodies or antiphospholipid antibodies?

  5. MK Says:

    I have several biggie mutations in the methylation cycle and have been on various vitamins and supplements for several years with mixed results. I started on 1 Tbsp per day of liquid soy lecithin back in the spring, and there was an almost immediate and very noticeable difference in my anxiety level, chronic constipation, and focusing issues. Despite being in the gifted program as a kid and having a high IQ, I have always been frustrated with my attention level and ability to finish what I start (didn’t finish HS on time, dropped out/kicked out of college multiple times 10 years ago). I am now taking college classes and getting all A’s. In the middle of summer semester I ran out of lecithin and kept meaning to pick some up and didn’t really make it a priority, but for the 2 weeks I was off of it I would just sit in front of the computer, unable to complete the papers I had to write. That spaciness and lack of focus went away as soon as I restarted the supplement. I’ve tried citicoline and a normal choline/inositol supplement, and they both made me nutty. Lecithin doesn’t do that. Tastes like crap and the texture is nasty but I can choke it down if it gets me through school. : )

  6. Shae Says:

    I have Dysautonomia (hyperMCAS POTS and NCS/NMH) plus a host of comorbid conditions. I am a ‘no call’ on this allele. Any suggestions?

  7. geneticgenie Says:

    Shae – A no call for that gene probably means that 23andMe had trouble genotyping that part or area of your DNA. So there are no conclusions you can draw from that.

    However, it’s just a single gene and it’s not determinant of fatty liver or choline deficiency. It just increases odds of developing fatty liver which can be caused by choline deficiency.

    I don’t give medical advice, but do you eat eggs? Some may do well with them, some potentially worse depending on autoantibodies and allergies. Nevertheless, most otherwise healthy people do not get enough lecithin as described in the post.

    POTS can be caused by acetylcholine dysregulation and acetylcholine receptor antibodies and many other things. What to do in that case isn’t clear to me, but a good POTS specialist (found at usually knows how to test for these things and what to do about them.

  8. Shae Says:

    I love eggs. Unfortunately, I’m a complicated zebra…I can’t take the typical Meds, and have unfortunate comorbidities. Kinda hosed, basically. I’m also hyperMCAS POTS (extremely rare subset of hyper POTS) as well as NCS/NMH, so it gets complicated, indeed. I know several of my COMT SNPs carry mutations.

  9. Tiffany Says:

    I got a prenatal diagnosis of trisomy 21 for my last child and read a study in a mouse model of T21 where pre- and perinatal choline improved symptoms. I started 3 g/day choline at ~20 weeks and my now 8 month old was born with no major health issues and is progressing age appropriately in terms of meeting milestones. We have continued choline during breastfeeding. I would love to find out the level of methylation on my son’s 21st chromosome as I’m sure that the high dose choline has decreased the severity of effects from the additional chromosome.

  10. melvin Says:

    the snp you named above for pemt is the one my results say is the normal one TT and shows green not red colored like the mthfr.

    Why would the wild type normal be a higher risk for fatty liver?

  11. geneticgenie Says:

    First, the wild type isn’t always beneficial. Second, it is the wild type for caucasians, but not for most other ethnicities.

    Digging a bit more before this comment, it doesn’t appear that there is universal agreement that this SNP increases risk of NAFLD. However, caucasians with NAFLD appear to be more likely to be TT. Confusing indeed!

  12. James Says:

    Great article but I think there is an error.

    We are only interested in the raw egg yolk portion of the egg which would be about 17 grams. This means there is roughly 116 mg of lecithin per raw egg yolk and not 389 mg.

  13. geneticgenie Says:

    James – thank you for your correction. Will correct the article.

  14. john Says:

    I am diagnosed with myasthenia gravis.and undergone post thymectomy. Can I use this lecithin as a supplement. Will I see any improvement in my situation. Thanks in advance.

  15. Kathrynn Says:

    I have been having some intermittent ptosis (eyelid drooping) and myasthenia gravis was suggested as a possibility. I put together several conversations about myasthenia gravis with a word I remembered from my detox report “acetylation”, so I ran my 23andme results for PEMT and I am +/+ homozygous TT for the rs7946 and also rs4646408 is +/+ TT as well. Of the rest of the PEMT there are 22 heterozygous, 10 normal, and 13 not genotyped. According to my detox report I am probably a slow acetylator since I have NAT2 R197Q rs1799930 AA +/+. Also in the detox report are CYP1B1 L432V rs1056836 GG +/+ and CYP1B1 N453S rs1800440 CC +/+ but I’m not sure if that has an impact on acetylcholine or not. Myasthenia gravis is an autoimmune disease. In myasthenia gravis, antibodies block, alter, or destroy the receptors for acetylcholine at the neuromuscular junction, which prevents the muscle contraction from occurring. I have autoimmune diseases already which automatically makes me susceptible to others.
    Am I correct in thinking that these gene defects regarding acetylation would mean that I have less acetylcholine in the first place? If so it would seem to me that antibodies further blocking receptors for what little there is might bring on symptoms or exacerbate them.
    I was having an episode of ptosis yesterday and I find it interesting/strange that I had a craving for fried eggs with runny yolks. I ate 5 of them. The ptosis went away later that evening. I hadn’t read your article at that time but now I wonder if it was my body craving the lecithin for the choline? Also, I happen to have choline bitartrate powder… would that be beneficial to take or not?

  16. Christi Says:

    I’m hoping to connect the dots between this and BCHE gene rs1799807, cholinesterase inhibitors, nightshade intolerance. Anne Wright has written on it.

    I’ve had a decrease in POTS like symptoms, mysthenia gravis like symptoms, CFS/Fibromyalgia, just from eliminating Nightshade foods.

    I like eggs but they seem to make me sick to my stomach, I wish I could benefit from a choline supplement I still have anxiety and memory problems.

  17. Dan Says:

    HI Christi,

    I’m not a doctor, but a patient like you. I’ve also found that I need to avoid nightshade foods big time or I get muscle cramps, twitching, and just overall overstimulation. High acetylcholine levels can cause anxiety as well due to that overstimulation.

    I recently found a study that showed a connection between B12 deficiency and low acetylcholinesterase levels, suggesting that perhaps B12 may help increase the breakdown of acetylcholine.

    The same with l-carnitine. Treatment with l-carnitine helped restore acetylcholinesterase levels in aged rats.

    Not sure if the same thing occurs in humans, but it’s worth noting that B12 levels are often functionally low, as are l-carnitine.

    Hope this is helpful in some way.

  18. David Says:

    No discussion about choline, phosphatidylcholine or lecithin (or even L-carnitine, betaine or TMG) consumption is complete without a thorough discussion of TMAO (Trimethylamine N-oxide).

    There are several studies on this subject. Here is one:

    Gut flora metabolism of phosphatidylcholine promotes cardiovascular… – PubMed – NCBI

    As far as popular media, Dr. Oz, who used to recommend L-Carnitine supplements, has retracted that recommendation. When it comes to TMAO, there is little difference between L-Carnitine and choline supplements.

  19. Joel Greene Says:

    I have acetylcholine esterase deficiency. My C-reactive protein test was “7″. Do I have a higher level of inflammation or does this mean that a serious health telatefevent is imminent?

  20. fd Says:

    well, thank you so much Researcher. The information was a lot and it took me some days to read and study all, but it was worth it.

  21. Terry Lynch Says:

    Thanks so much for the treasure chest of Lecithin and acetycholine interactions and preponderant choline deficiency pathophysiology.
    Recently a multifocal motor neuropathy(less than 4000 diagnosed US) case showed up in my neigborhood falling over from left sided muscle deterioration. She had been taking IgA twice a month with a present cost presently exceeding $20,000 / month since 1990. Within 6 months on a proper choline rich diet, stress free gardening in a peaceful place, and one tablespoon of granular Lecithin (always purchased direct from manufacturer and kept in the freezer to avoid oxidation!!) her neurologist in NY was flabergasted, astonished, amazed! Totally healed from the incurable and muscles reestablished “that would never come back”.
    I have some questions:
    1.) Is there a hyperglycemic effect for NAFLD diabetics from Lecithin supplementation?
    2.) I see that Homocysteine assay should be done at the testing lab itself since it is sensitive to rapid deteriorization. Did you mention that?
    3.) Did you see the recent article where there was 8 times less loss of gray matter in Alzheimer dementia patients with high homocysteine given large amounts of certain B-Vitamins? Amazing
    4.) Where and how may one get all this genetic testing done and is it just for curiosity sake? Treatmentof deficiency seems primary?
    5.) Do we agree that Non alcoholic fatty liver syndrome etiology may be hepatic lipogeneisis from metabolic processing of fructose natural of concentrated from corn?

    Thank you again! Awesome work!

    Another patient medical researcher

  22. Terry Lynch Says:

    Researcher, I am very grateful or your metabolic treatise! I will be studying your profound observations until my dying day(maybe not so fa of at my age of 67.)

  23. Dan Says:

    “A Researcher”: The info you have provided (and provided and provided and provided) is OVERWHELMING, and impossible to wade through.

    Please try and make it ‘user-friendly’ to the average reader.

    Thank you.

  24. Chris Says:

    For those struggling with B12 deficiency, I recently heard about a new oral prescription alternative to the injections called Eligen B12. I recently read that it works even if you don’t have intrinsic factor (so even if you don’t have normal gut absorption). Apparently it came out a month or two ago. Has anyone heard of it or tried it??

  25. Tomm Says:

    It has a lot to do with nicotinic acetylcholine receptors like alpha 7 NAchR. It is involved in inflammatory pathways more than you would think.

    Even patents for treating chronic disease with AChEI natural drugs like galantamine exist –

    That’s why smoking may help lose weight, alleviate arthritis, improve cognition, etc… or do right the opposite.

    Huperzine A, Galantamine, lecithin, DMAE, …. and B-vitamins due to their importance in making the acetylcholine like B1 – thiamine.

  26. steve Says:

    What about Egg Lecithin?
    I use the Capsules from Nature’s Plus

  27. David Clark Says:

    I found the site: And all I have to say is, wow, what a lot of information to take in.
    I have been having strong symptoms along these lines for a few years (I am 51 now). I also now realize that I may have had milder symptoms since being a child (particularly chronic diarrhea and trouble swallowing certain foods). I have only in the last few days, however, realized that I may be dealing with one of the myasthenic syndromes probably congenital (I am aware of a couple others in my family who have died of symptoms similar to this all descended from a common great-grandfather diagnosed with “ataxia” who died of it in 1931 at the age of 63, but many others including my father who has dealt with milder symptoms, particularly trouble swallowing certain foods). I see a group of NPs but they haven’t considered this yet. So I am going to have them schedule an EMG to be done to see what level of muscular challenge I am dealing with.
    I have been diagnosed with PBC/AMA over the last few months. I am still a little unclear about how supplementing my diet may exacerbate any autoimmunity issues. I have also several months ago found out about several food allergies. None were severe, but several were strong including many “hypo-allergenic” foods such as apples, pears, peas, onions, etc. I am probably allergic to all grains but I am not gluten or even lactic intolerant. Pseudograins seem to be fine. I’ve also started a night-shade avoidance diet (anti-inflammatory). Dairy, especially cheese and other unsweetened milk products seem to actually help me. I don’t do well with legumes although green beans seem to be fine. It’s just been quite the pathway to figure out.

  28. Garry Says:

    The achr-ganglionic autoantibody was found in my blood several years ago. Is there any new news on choline supplementation if you have this condition?

  29. Margie Says:

    I have primary biliary cirrhosis, nafld, sjogrens , pulmonary fibrosis, hashimotos. Went into remission but developed myasthenia gravis and menieres anyway. Am on mestinon. It is positively affecting my fatty liver, the fat seems to be finally getting better. I have always done better on vitamins with more choline and was in l carnitine while I developed the mg. U believe choline and supporting vitamin supplementation could be an effective treatment for fatty liver. The mestinon also helps with mental clarity. Mestinon increases acetylcholine. Tramadol or a derivative I think will be important also in treating autoimmune diseases because of its effect in serotonin. Alpha lipoic acid put my thyroid in remission.

  30. Alessa Says:

    Thank you for this very informative article. I recently had stomach issues and stopped all my supplements. That was two weeks ago and now my symptoms are bad. I have Sjogren’s and Hashimoto’s and I am in a huge amount of pain, have dry eyes, sore throat, and neck feels like it needs a chiropractor every day. I restarted my fish oil supplement yesterday and will restart lecithin today. I didn’t realize how bad things could get without it. As a sidenote, I also have CFS, depression, anxiety, and am extra sensitive to pain. I carry MTHFR but not sure about the other SNP mentioned above. I’m a believer in the power of lecithin.

  31. Jade Edward Says:

    Updated link for the Milner Protocol:

  32. Marcia Lester Says:

    I have Myasthenia Gravis, Hashimoto’s thyroiditis, Sjogren’s, and my dysautonomia was finally diagnosed. My infertility was caused by endometriosis(autoimmune), and, an endometrial receptor cell defect. MG is also a receptor cell defect. My neurologist, informed me, that MG with dysautonomia wasn’t unusual. Having trouble swallowing food, doctors diagnosed me with achalasia, related to my MG. I, also have common variable immune deficiency syndrome. Following, a second bout of thrombophlebitis, I was tested for anti-phospholipid syndrome and everything came back normal. Doctors felt the thrombophlebitis was secondary to taking b.c. pills and hormones. My B12 levels became elevated after I took Stresstabs with B12 in them, which, I discontinued. However, I will discuss a lecithin supplement with my multiple physicians, and see what they think. Thank you for the information.

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  34. Ngasha Says:

    I have Ulcerative Colitis, Fibromyalgia, Asperger’s & MDD. I am presently (3/2017) in a double-blind study for Protect-3 phosphatidylcholine granules from soy lecithin in the treatment of U.C. It’s going good, I think I have the real thing, much improved!

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  36. SOCS Says:

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  38. Lilac Says:

    Choline can also make people very depressed, because it can lead to excess of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine. That is known to cause depression, and new drugs are being developed that block excess acetylcholine in the brain. See for example the work of Yale researcher Marina Picciotti. The body uses dietary choline to make acetylcholine.

    On the genetic side, some persons have a mutation in the BCHE gene (rs 1799807), which leads to a shortage of the enzyme “Butyrylcholinesterace,” which breaks down acetylcholine as well as other chemicals with choline. Thus this enzyme may lead to having excess acetylcholine, and one can check to see if one has that snp, since 23andMe codes for it, and Promethease reports on it. The disorder goes by the name “Pseudocholinesterace deficiency,” and in medical circles it is discussed in terms of choline-based anesthesia drugs given for operations, but the effect the mutation may have for depression is missed. It is important to know that heterogeneity for Pseudocholinesterace Deficiency can also confer difficulty with choline medications and excess acetylcholine in the brain.

    I recently read of some drugs that might help counteract that, as well as nutmeg!
    For myself, having this SNP (heterozygote), I feel best avoiding choline. See some discussions on all this at

    Our forebears knew there was a connection between choline and depression. The word “melancholia” has the root of “choline,” and that is no coincidence. See “black bile.”

    So there you have it, another view of choline. Its benefit depends on one’s genetic makeup. Online you can get lists of foods high in choline, and experiment with your mood. For example eat low choline for a while, then have lots of lecithin all together, and see what happens. My mood is better when I avoid it–but we are all different.

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  42. Mathew Carnage Says:

    Nice article and thank you for the information. I knew about choline deficiency from here: I didn’t realise that it had so much underlying genetics to it.

  43. OrganisedPauper Says:

    I have several genetic factors that collide. More than one that affect the synnthesis of choline, meaning I’m likely to be deficient, and one that lowers the production of phosphotydilecholine. But, I also have more than one genetic factor which means saturated fat increases obesity and type diabetes and other health problems. Most sources of choline seem to come with a dose of saturated fat. As I need more choline than most people, and possibly betaine I’m not sure what to do. I have found saturated fat makes me feel quite ill. I already have Bipolar, diabetes, Fibromyalgia and possibly chronic fatigue. Oh and MTHFR, and a whole lot of other stuff I’m still getting my head around.

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    Приветствую! уважаемые форумчане подборка полезной информации купить детскую коляску киев Подножка может быть выдвижной или подниматься.Возможна оплата при получении!Коляски складываются книжкой, по горизонтали, от себя вперед, спинкой к сиденью.

  45. Curae Health Says:

    Inositol is also a part of the vitamin B complex group. Many healthy diets as- egg, meat, nuts, etc are the sources of inositol. Inositol supplement is also a good source to fulfill the need of vitamin B in the body.

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  47. teri Says:

    I have hereditary alpha tryptasemia- extra tryptase genes. It lends to MCAS, Dysautonomia, and connective tissue issues. The drugs that help with the MCAS is ketotifen (a mast cell stabilizer)- which is a strong muscarinic receptor antagonist (so I have read) which would be a acetylcholine blocker. Trying to wrap my brain as to how this fits in. I was noticing more Dysautonomia symptoms of shallow breathing, etc, so trying to find alternatives to the ketotifen. Thank you so much for this study….

  48. Donaldwal Says:


  49. InterestedRsearcher Says:

    According to the empirical data and the website, each of the health conditions on this web page, including Genetic Conditions, should be considered as deficiency until the primary deficient pathways causal to detrimental Human outcomes are beneficially managed.

    Review the Amehsi Specification at

    The factors to manage are
    Choline is required at 4mg per KG of Anatomical Mass each day or betwen 800 and 1326 mg per day for Human Adults. The dosage for other organisms or developing Humans should use the mg/mass guideline.

    Homocysteine whould be managed to below 7 Micromoles per liter. (Dimetylacetothetin, S-methylmethionine, Trimethylglycine, Folate, Choline, Phosphatidylcholine, Glutathione, L-Arginine, L-Histidine, L-Cysteine, Selenomethionine, all B Vitamins with B12 Methylcobalamin, Circumin, Berberine, Danshen/Red Sage, Zinc, 5678 Tetrahydrolate, NAD+, NADH, Molybdenum)

    S-Adenosyl Homocysteine should be managed to less thant 0.012 Micromoles per liter. (Dimetylacetothetin, S-methylmethionine, Trimethylglycine, Folate, Choline, Phosphatidylcholine, Glutathione, L-Arginine, L-Histidine, L-Cysteine, Selenomethionine, all B Vitamins with B12 Methylcobalamin, Circumin, Berberine, Danshen/Red Sage, Zinc, 5678 Tetrahydrolate, NAD+, NADH, Molybdenum)

    Choline Kinase should be managed in adults. (Inhibitor, Adenosine, Pregnenolone if oncology therapy is not being instrumented)

    Inducible Nitric Oxide Synthase should be managed (Inhibitor, Circumin, Covering all the power/electrical outlets in Home with duct tape or EMF absorbing tape/material, place EMF protection sticker on windows and electronics in Home or electrical tranfer enclosurs in or near the home, use EMF protection blankets or material for sleeping or window coverings, EMF protection covering the eyes and head when sleeping, spend time in areas where not power/energy fields or communication fields are, turning of all the communications protocols on mobile phones and removing the battery/sim at night, removing all addresses or phone as well as name and photos from internet locations and websites)

    Uncoupling of nitric Oxide Synthases including Hypochlorite, Peroxynitrite, H2O2, and Superoxide should be managed (Tetrahydrioiopterin or Pteridin 4, Iron, Vandium, L-Arginine, Catalase, Superoxide Dismutase, Glutathione, Reduced Glutathione, Peroxyredoxine, Glutathione Peroxidase, Garcia Kola Seed Extract, N-Acetyl L-Cysteine)

    Trimethylamine-N-Oxide should be managed as a priority(3,3 DMB, Grapeseed Extract, Fruity Olive Oil, Balsamic Vinegar, Broad Spectrum Antibiotic during an Emergency, Probiotic, Prebiotic, Postbiotic, TMA Lyase managing therapeutics, other)

    NAD+ Depletion should be Managed. (NAD+ enhancing supplements, NAD+, NADH, Ribose, Deoxyribose, Riboucleotide Suppements, Deoyribonucleodite Supplements)

    Dont use table salt, use Ancient Pink Himalayan Sea Salt to prevent scratching of vasculature which is an essential factor in pathology cascades. Also, us Sunland Foods’ version because it extensively includes trace minerals essential biology and which elute sulfur from tissues and the environment.

    Sulfur has to be assured. (Methylsulfonylmethane, Methylmethionine, and even trace levels of methanethiol.)

    Avoid unfiltered water because of the Fluorine, Chlorine, Nitrosamine, Arsenic and Mercury potential. Drink filtered or bottled water. Several instances each week drink Bodyarmour Superwater or Bai which has selenomethione.

    Use a natural sugar substitute such as Xylitol and use Sugar in the Raw or Mannose exhibiting Sugar if one has to use sugar.

    Use a mixed Glandular supplement as well as bone powder supplement including that from TDW and Traditional Foods Glandular suppement.

    Use Kidney stuff from Goldenstandards.

    Consider utilizing a Nongmo, all natural, whole food Nutritional regimen. Including a natural, wholefood, Nongmo Vitamin supplement and wholistic mineral supplement if not using Sunland Foods Ancient Pink Himalayan Sea Salt.

    Perform Light, comfortable, sustainable exercise each day.

    Go the Website to get more information and work with a health provider as these recommendations are navigated.

    Once eac recommendation is achieved, it is useful to have clinical feedback because the changes are typically dramatic because pervasively disease cannot exist without these factors. The therapeutic map at the amehsi website provides substitutes for each of these supplement recommendations.

    It i possible to merely place all of these factors into morning and evening health drink or shake.

    Also the following provides some purchasing intelligence for providers and consumers.
    A. allows you to build your own custom supplement with much of these in 1 or two purchased formulations. Use the therapeutic map at the amehsi website to find substitutes for recommendations that might be in the ingredient list.
    B. Gastromend-HP has catalase and Methylmethionine which seem to be difficult to find otherwise
    c. Beta-TCP has health mix of Betaine/Trimethylglycine and other factors
    d. Kidney stuff from Golden standard can be purchased as powder for mixes or capsules, and capsules are better for people who have dental prosthetics or are particular about texture of ingested factors.
    e. TDW has other recommeded products found on the AMEHSI start page or the other documentation
    f. Get a drink or food mixer and use these to mix the factors together it seems too complex, although using for as many of these as is possible and then obtaining other factors individually seems to be something to consider.

  50. Jason Says:

    Does it strike anyone as amazing that the American diet is end loaded with Beef Chicken and Eggs and yet only 10% of the population has adequate choline intake? How is this possible?

  51. Thomas Thibault Says:

    This can’t be true because you would need to eat more than 6eggs everyday, or 800 Gr of meat or 1kg of vegetables.. For have the adequate amount. Wich would be probably more harmful than beneficial. The suggest amount are impossible to get with any normal diet.
    I also doubt the amount of lecithin you would need, I found totally other numbers

  52. ursula caballero Says:

    Thank you ALL for such vast information.
    I have a gene mutation at the CHRNA 2, 4 and CHRNB2 receptors for acetycholine. It is an autosomal dominant transmission mutation which causes me Nocturnal Frontal Lobe seizures, and many other symptoms related to the vagus nerve.
    I would like to try Alpha GPC and L Serine to help with the chronic insomnia. I’m a bit nervous adding something to my brain function, since i react differently to many supplements and medications.
    Any thoughts?

  53. Researcher Says:

    Consider every genettic condition as a metabolic syndrome until you get between 4 and 7 mg of choline per kg of anatomical mass, 500 mg of s-methyl methionine using gastromendhp, nad+, 500 mg of methylsulfonylmethane, 300 mg of grapeseed extract, 500 mg of l-arginine, 500 mg of mixed rna/dna nucleotides, 500 mg of ribose, 1/4 tablespoon of pink himalayan sea salt, no typical table salt, only filtered water, amineral supplement including alkali minerals, zinc, molybdenum, all b vitamins with methyl cobalamin. 5678 methyltetrahydrofolate is the best filate to include. You also must cover up the power plugs and outlets in your home with duct tape or emf safe material, use quantum scakar emf stickers on all electronics abd communications devices. Get emf safe quilts, pajamas, quilts, blankets, bedding and clothes. Glutatione in sod3 by kal, and beta- tcp by biotics research are good. Bai warer has selenomethionine. Bh4 biopterine by naturals. Start at the beginning of the list. Youll also require curcumin and berberine. Tell your doc what your doing. If the symptoms dont abate, find a nation that uses cruspr gene repair and get references from western nation patients.
    Metabolic syndrome of choline inadequacy or pemt inhibition blocks dna/rna synthesis, impairs nadph adequacy, and cases depletion of nad+, resulting increase levels of homocysteine and s-adenodylhomocysteine. 800 mg of choline and functional pemt which synthesize choline as well as reversal of choline oxidation from trimethylglycine using adequate nad+. Nad+ depletion impairs much of phydiological metabolism, impairs the homocysteine hydrolase to cause accumulation of s-adenosyl homocysteine above 0.012 um/L and accumulates lactate anion because pyruvate is directed toward lactate anion to produce nad+ fom nadh to supply insatiable parp and pars signaling that occur millions of instances each day in each biological cellular entity for dna repair, replication and transcription. Choline inadequacy and energy fields cause inducible mitric oxide synthase, phospholipase c and phospholipase d, together perforating endoplasmic reticulum amd plasma mebranes, depleting ca2+ and l-arginine, collapse sarcolemma, enabling viruses and microbes to escspe the toxic plasma membrane interstitial space where mhc molecules monitor deactivated microbes for adaptive immunity, are reauired for every virus and most microbes, depleat ca2+ from bones on systemic gradients that promote calcificatiom of soft tissues and increase vitamin k2 requirements, sequester ca2+ from endothelial and neuronal NOS, cause constriction of caveolae where much of secretion, absorption, ligand activation, adaptive immunity cd4/cd8, signal transduction occur, and cause ameboid shape of cellular entities. inos promotes deficient nos catalysis which is called uncoupled, producing reactive radicals, superoxide, h2o2, peroxynitrite, and hypochlorite, which, along with trimethylamine-n-oxide are molecular cause of infarct, promote increased inhibition of pemt enzymes, and are the cause of every dudden adverse health event, sudden adverse behavior pervasively, and the cause of abated vital being of natural cause. These factirs akso cause dysruption of aldehyde dehydrogenases and acyl transferase performing lands cycle catalysis and even cause comparative upregulation of one several acyltransferases and phospholipases that produce only eicosanoids, arachidonic acid, leukotrienes, prostacyclins, prostaglandins, prothrombin and inhibit p53 which reoresent required conditions of most pathology and which are canonical conditions of aerobic glycolysis in all tissue except for actively excercising muscle tissue.
    If you mix this stuff together and apply topically it will cause scarless wound healing and regardless of how large a scar is, it will move to surface of dermis, seperate and fall away. The same process occurs in physiology except thrombolysis occurs to deteriorate scar tissue and repair organs, muscles, tissue, bone, glands, muscle, connective tissue, nerves and other anatomical factors. Theses factors are correlated with reviving patoents whom are consudered to not be alive anymore as long as enough of anatomy exists to reconstitute vital being, although adding dimethyl sulfoxide has been experimentally confirmed to cause regeneration of massive aspects of anatomy. It is known that cardiac and pulmonary organs develop outside of physiology when inflammation is managed, exhibiting spontaneous rhythms without blood, although blood is essential, and without an encompassing anatomy, although an anatomy is essential.
    Humorous references to zombies are not accurate because the therapeutics here would assist biomedical capabilities to make any zombie healthier than anyone otherwise who was not afforded these factors.

    The levels of choline are accurate. 800 mg of choline is one capsule. High choline foods like cuties tangerines would reasonably constitute this level. Functional pemt and trimethylglycine might change required level of choline obtainment, but the amehsi site did not find studies confirming such change.

    Be sure to wirk with a health professional. Keep the names of health peofessionals confidential. Unless a health ststem is using hs-adeonsyl homocysteine above 0.012 um/L, Homocysteine above 7 um/L, C Reactive Protein, and the other factors here as thresholds for therapeutic management, outpatient therapy, and inpatient admittance, managing these factors can cause practices and health facilities ti have decreased revenues. Algorithms for provider practices, hospitals and health plans are available on the site. Some of the assertions and findings can cause spiteful responses by particular aspects of business, industry, and communities. Providers whom have fully allocated primary care relationships with patients can manage themselves to decreased patient visits which can cause health business entities to prioritize them for personnel decreases. The topics here, cnfirmed anecdotally, can result in loss of work, being discredited, being ostracized, being harrassed, intimidated, experiencing homelessness and joblessness. Their cognitive health may be questioned and people may try to cause detrimental outcomes to discredit Providers, groups or organizations, including patients. All of these have cause hundred of millions of unnecessary instances of demise since 1878. So, please, keep going to your provider and keep getting care when using these. Be discreet about who helps you. The amehsi site is anonymous in most instances because if these factors. Some may consider it easier to discredit reason and discredit patients or providers caring enough to eschew this kind of influence. Giving this information has caused some people tremendous social, personal and economic tumult. Many are not willing to experience 99 percent decrease in resources so make sure you take surveys or make comments which present providers who help you in these areas as being exceptionally capable. If you are here, it is likely that you are upon an exceptional path.

  54. Researcher Says:

    Using the Amehsi Website, you and your provider should be able to determine an effective therapeutic path for any health status.

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